Comparing MongoDB, MySQL, and TokuMX Data Layout by Zardosht Kasheff.
From the post:
A lot is said about the differences in the data between MySQL and MongoDB. Things such as “MongoDB is document based”, “MySQL is relational”, “InnoDB has a clustering key”, etc.. Some may wonder how TokuDB, our MySQL storage engine, and TokuMX, our MongoDB product, fit in with these data layouts. I could not find anything describing the differences with a simple google search, so I figured I’d write a post explaining how things compare.
So who are the players here? With MySQL, users are likely familiar with two storage engines: MyISAM, the original default up until MySQL 5.5, and InnoDB, the current default since MySQL 5.5. MongoDB has only one storage engine, and we’ll refer to it as “vanilla Mongo storage”. And of course, there is TokuDB for MySQL, and TokuMX.
First, let’s get some quick terminology out of the way. Documents and collections in MongoDB can be thought of as rows and tables in MySQL, respectively. And while not identical, fields in MongoDB are similar to columns in MySQL. A full SQL to MongoDB mapping can be found here. When I refer to MySQL, what I say applies to TokuDB, InnoDB, and MyISAM. When I say MongoDB, what I say applies to TokuMX and vanilla Mongo storage.
Great contrast of MongoDB and MySQL data formats.
Data formats are essential to understanding the capabilities and limitations of any software package.