Archive for the ‘Subjective Logic’ Category

Subjective Logic = Effective Logic?

Saturday, November 20th, 2010

Capture of Evidence for Summarization: An Application of Enhanced Subjective Logic

Authors(s): Sukanya Manna, B. Sumudu U. Mendis, Tom Gedeon Keywords: subjective logic, opinions, evidence, events, summarization, information extraction


In this paper, we present a method to generate an extractive summary from a single document using subjective logic. The idea behind our approach is to consider words and their co-occurrences between sentences in a document as evidence of their relatedness to the contextual meaning of the document. Our aim is to formulate a measure to find out ‘opinion’ about a proposition (which is a sentence in this case) using subjective logic in a closed environment (as in a document). Stronger opinion about a sentence represents its importance and are hence considered to summarize a document. Summaries generated by our method when evaluated with human generated summaries, show that they are more similar than baseline summaries.

The authors justify their use of “subjective” logic by saying:

pointed out that a given piece of text is interpreted by different person in a different fashion especially in the way how they understand and interpret the context. Thus we see that human understanding and reasoning is subjective in nature unlike propositional logic which deals with either truth or falsity of a statement. So, to deal with this kind of situation we used subjective logic to find out sentences which are significant in the context and can be used to summarize a document.

“Subjective” logic means we are more likely to reach the same result as a person reading the text.

Search results as used and evaluated by people.

That sounds like effective logic to me.


  1. Read the Audun Jøsang’s article Artificial Reasoning with Subjective Logic.
  2. Summarize three (3) applications (besides the article above) of “subjective” logic. (3-5 pages, citations)
  3. How do you think “subjective” logic should be modeled in topic maps? (3-5 pages, citations optional)