Jellyfish by James Turk and Michael Stephens.
From the webpage:
Jellyfish is a python library for doing approximate and phonetic matching of strings.
- Levenshtein Distance
- Damerau-Levenshtein Distance
- Jaro Distance
- Jaro-Winkler Distance
- Match Rating Approach Comparison
- Hamming Distance
- American Soundex
- NYSIIS (New York State Identification and Intelligence System)
- Match Rating Codex
You might want to consider the string matching offered by Duke (written on top of Lucene):
Token set comparators