Archive for July, 2016

An analysis of Pokémon Go types, created with R

Thursday, July 21st, 2016

An analysis of Pokémon Go types, created with R by David Smith.

From the post:

As anyone who has tried Pokémon Go recently is probably aware, Pokémon come in different types. A Pokémon’s type affects where and when it appears, and the types of attacks it is vulnerable to. Some types, like Normal, Water and Grass are common; others, like Fairy and Dragon are rare. Many Pokémon have two or more types.

To get a sense of the distribution of Pokémon types, Joshua Kunst used R to download data from the Pokémon API and created a treemap of all the Pokémon types (and for those with more than 1 type, the secondary type). Johnathon’s original used the 800+ Pokémon from the modern universe, but I used his R code to recreate the map for the 151 original Pokémon used in Pokémon Go.

If you or your dog:


need a break from Pokémon Go, check out this post!

You will get some much needed rest, polish up your R skills and perhaps learn something about the Pokémon API.

The Pokémon Go craze brings to mind the potential for the creation of alternative location-based games. Accessing locations which require steady nerves and social engineering skills. That definitely has potential.

Say a spy-vs-spy character at a location near a “secret” military base? 😉

Why You Can’t Keep Secrets (Or Be Cybersecure)

Thursday, July 21st, 2016

Why You Can’t Keep Secrets by William M. Arkin.

From the post:

I started thinking about this talk by polling friends in Washington to see if there were any good new jokes about secrecy. In other parts of the world, political jokes are often the purest expression of zeitgeist, so I thought a current favorite — you know, some knee slapper about the new Executive Order on classification, or one about the latest string of Bill Gertz’ leaks — would provide astute insight.

No dice though; people inside the beltway have never been renown for their humor.

In May, however, I was in Beirut, and the number of jokes about the Syrians were impressive.

Here’s my favorite.

Hafez Assad is with Bill Clinton and Jacques Chirac on the Mississippi River to negotiate Syria’s withdrawal from Lebanon. Assad drops his watch into the river and when he bend over the deck railing to look for it, snapping alligators thrust up from the deep. Clinton tells one of the Marine guards to retrieve President Assad’s watch. The Marine goes to the edge, looks over at the alligators and says to the President Mr. President, you know we live in the greatest country on earth, and therefore I can decline an unlawful order. If I jump in to retrieve Mr. Assad’s watch I would die, and besides I have a family…

So Chirac, thinking he can tweak the American nose says to a French soldier, jump in the water and retrieve Assad’s watch. The legionnaire snaps to attention and runs to dive in, but he then looks over and sees the snapping alligators, and turns to Chirac and says Monsieur President, you know our democracy is even older than America, and besides, I have a family…

So Assad whispers something in the ear of a Syrian soldier, who runs to the railing and without hesitation, jumps in the water, swims through the alligators, retrieves the watch, and returns safely to the boat. The Marine and the Legionnaire, both amazed, crowd around the Syrian to ask what Assad said.

Well, the soldier explains, I too have a family…


So what does this have to do with secrecy?

To me, it is a real world reminder that to level any kind of indictment about the evils of U.S. government secrecy is to be trivial. One only has to visit places like the Middle East to appreciate how free our system is.

Given the current events in Syria, a timely posting of a speech that Arkin made:

…twenty years ago to military and industry officers and officials at the annual U.S. Air Force National Security Leadership Course, Maxwell AFB, Alabama, delivered on 14 August 1996.

The central difficulty of secrecy and cybersecurity are both captured by the line:

Anyone knows that in order to preserve real secrets, they need to be identified.

As opposed to the blanket classification of nearly every document, memo, draft, email, etc., which is nearly the current practice in the Obama administration, you have to pick which secrets are truly worth protecting. And then protect them.

As Arkin points out, to do otherwise generates a climate where leaks are a routine part of government and generates suspicion even when the government, perhaps by accident, is telling the truth.

The same principle is true for cybersecurity. Have you identified the components of your network and the level of security appropriate to each one? Or do VPs still have write access to the accounting software?

For meaningful secrecy or cybersecurity, you must have explicit identification of what is to be secret/secure and what steps are taken to bring that about. Anything less and you won’t be able to keep secrets and/or have cybersecurity. (Ask the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) for example.)

Twitter Nanny Says No! No!

Thursday, July 21st, 2016


For the other side of this story, enjoy Milo Yiannopoulos’s Twitter ban, explained by Aja Romano, where Aja is supportive of Twitter and its self-anointed role as arbiter of social values.

From my point of view, the facts are fairly simple:

Milo Yiannopoulos (formerly @Nero) has been banned from Twitter on the basis of his speech and the speech of others who agree with him.

What more needs to be said?

I have not followed, read, reposted or retweeted any tweets by Milo Yiannopoulos (formerly @Nero). And would not even if someone sent them to me.

I choose to not read that sort of material and so can anyone else. Including the people who complain in Aja’s post.

The Twitter Nanny becomes censor in insisting that no one be able to read tweets from Milo Yiannopoulos (formerly @Nero).

I’ve heard the argument that the First Amendment doesn’t apply to Twitter, which is true, but irrelevant. Only one country in the world has the First Amendment as stated in the US Constitution but that doesn’t stop critics from decrying censorship by other governments.

Or is it only censorship if you agree with the speech being suppressed?

Censorship of speech that I find disturbing, sexist, racist, misogynistic, dehumanizing, transphobic, homophobic, supporting terrorism, is still censorship.

And it is still wrong.

We only have ourselves to blame for empowering Twitter to act as a social media censor. Central point of failure and all that jazz.

Suggestions on a free speech alternative to Twitter?

Troubling State of Security Cameras? Cybersecurity Spam

Thursday, July 21st, 2016

The Troubling State of Security Cameras; Thousands of Devices Vulnerable by Ali Raza.

From the post:

The recent Lizard Squad hack which resulted in a lot of CCTV cameras targeted and hijacked by a DDOS attack has highlighted the need for better security cameras. A study conducted by Protection1 shows how many security agencies do not take things seriously, Protection1 report.

The Lizard Squad hack is not the first instance of security cameras being overridden and used to spy on people. The widespread hack has brought to light once again just how many security cameras are under operation without any sort of protection, making them sitting ducks for any hacker with moderate skills. The CCTV cameras in the US that were attacked by the Lizard Squad hack were used in a wide range of areas from home security and traffic cams to cameras in banks and restaurants.

The ease of carrying out this attack prompted security company Protection1 to investigate the matter. The rising levels of sophistication of hacking tools and the incompetence of security personnel to keep in touch with hackers have made hunting much simpler for hackers. In a bid to understand just how serious the situation is, Protection1 analyzed 6,000 unsecured or open cameras all over the United States of America to find out which companies do not take your security seriously. They pulled data from the cameras using and mapped and analyzed the locations to generate results.

Ali re-uses all the graphics from the Protection1 report, which is itself written in a very summary fashion. No in depth coverage of the cameras and/or techniques to access them.

Be aware that Protection1 is a home/business security monitoring type company and not likely to interest cybersecurity fans.

As far as the “troubling state of security cameras,” that depends upon who you ask.

If you are selling security solutions, it is click-bait for customers who want to be more secure.

If you are selling surveillance, access and data collection services, such cameras are additional data sources.

The History of Cartography

Wednesday, July 20th, 2016

The History of Cartography

From the webpage:

The first volume of the History of Cartography was published in 1987 and the three books that constitute Volume Two appeared over the following eleven years. In 1987 the worldwide web did not exist, and since 1998 book publishing has gone through a revolution in the production and dissemination of work. Although the large format and high quality image reproduction of the printed books (see right column) are still well-suited to the requirements for the publishing of maps, the online availability of material is a boon to scholars and map enthusiasts.

On this site the University of Chicago Press is pleased to present the first three volumes of the History of Cartography in PDF format. Navigate to the PDFs from the left column. Each chapter of each book is a single PDF. The search box on the left allows searching across the content of all the PDFs that make up the first six books.

Links to the parts, which are then divided into separate PDF files of each chapter:

Volume One: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean

Volume Two: Book 1: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies

Volume Two: Book 2: Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies

Volume Two: Book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies

Volume Three: Cartography in the European Renaissance, Part 1

Volume Three: Cartography in the European Renaissance, Part 2

Unless you want to index the parts for yourself, remember the search box at this site that searches across all six volumes.

This can be a real time sink, deeply educational but a time sink none the less.

What’s the “CFR” and Why Is It So Important to Me?

Wednesday, July 20th, 2016

What’s the “CFR” and Why Is It So Important to Me? Government Printing Office (GPO) blog, GovernmentBookTalk.

From the post:

If you’re a GPO Online Bookstore regular or public official you probably know we’re speaking about the “Code of Federal Regulations.” CFRs are produced routinely by all federal departments and agencies to inform the public and government officials of regulatory changes and updates for literally every subject that the federal government has jurisdiction to manage.

For the general public these constantly updated federal regulations can spell fantastic opportunity. Farmer, lawyer, construction owner, environmentalist, it makes no difference. Within the 50 codes are a wide variety of regulations that impact citizens from all walks of life. Federal Rules, Regulations, Processes, or Procedures on the surface can appear daunting, confusing, and even may seem to impede progress. In fact, the opposite is true. By codifying critical steps to anyone who operates within the framework of any of these sectors, the CFR focused on a particular issue can clarify what’s legal, how to move forward, and how to ultimately successfully translate one’s projects or ideas into reality.

Without CFR documentation the path could be strewn with uncertainty, unknown liabilities, and lost opportunities, especially regarding federal development programs, simply because an interested party wouldn’t know where or how to find what’s available within their area of interest.

The authors of CFRs are immersed in the technical and substantive issues associated within their areas of expertise. For a private sector employer or entrepreneur who becomes familiar with the content of CFRs relative to their field of work, it’s like having an expert staff on board.

I like the CFRs but I stumbled on:

For a private sector employer or entrepreneur who becomes familiar with the content of CFRs relative to their field of work, it’s like having an expert staff on board.

I don’t doubt the expertise of the CFR authors, but their writing often requires an expert for accurate interpretation. If you doubt that statement, test your reading skills on any section of CFR Title 26, Internal Revenue.

Try your favorite NLP parser out on any of the CFRs.

The post lists a number of ways to acquire the CFRs but personally I would use the free Electronic Code of Federal Regulations unless you need to impress clients with the paper version.


Online Sources of Fake News

Wednesday, July 20th, 2016

Not a guide to particular sources, although examples are mentioned, Alastair Reid sets out categories of fake news sources in The 5 sources of fake news everyone needs to look out for online.

From the post:

No, soldiers aren’t being kicked off an army base to make way for Syrian refugees. Sorry, but Ted Cruz didn’t have a Twitter meltdown and blame God for his failed presidential campaign. And that viral video of a woman being chased down a mountainside with a bear is almost definitely fake.

The internet has a fake news problem and some lies can be dangerous. A fantastic story might be entertaining, but misinformation can fundamentally change how people view the world and their fellow citizens, influencing opinions, behaviour and votes.

This isn’t really news – lies have always been part of the fabric of society, whether spoken or written – but the internet has given anyone a platform to share false information and the tools to make untruths ever harder to detect.

Understanding the origins of fake news is part of the process. So where does it come from?

I’m disappointed people are spreading the truth about Ted Cruz not blaming God for his failed campaign. Anything, lie, fact, rumor, etc., that blackens his reputation cannot be a bad thing in my view.

Let obscure history dissertations separate fact from fiction about Ted Cruz several centuries from now. Once we are certain the stake they should drive through his heart upon burial isn’t going to work loose. The important goal now is to limit his ability to harm the public.

And so it is with all “fake” news, there is some goal to be furthered by the spreading of the fake news.

“Official sources of propaganda” are the first group that Alastair mentions and somewhat typically the focus is on non-Western governments, although Western propaganda gets a nod in the last paragraph of that section.

My approach to Western (and other) government reports, statements by government actors or people who want to be government actors is as follows:

  1. They are lying.
  2. Who benefits from this lie? (Contributors, Contractors, Cronies)
  3. Who is disadvantaged by this lie? (Agency infighting, career competitors)
  4. Why lie about this now? (Relationship to other events and actors)
  5. Is this lie consistent/inconsistent with other lies?

What other purpose would statements, reports from the government have if they weren’t intended to influence you?

Do you really think any government wants you to be an independent, well-informed participant in public decision making processes? No wonder you believe fake news so often.

Don’t you find it odd that Western reports of Islamic State bombings are always referred to as “terrorist” events and yet when Allied forces kill another 56 civilians, nary a peep of the moniker “terrorist?”

Alastair’s post is a great read and help towards avoiding some forms of fake news.

There are other sources, such as the reflex to parrot Western government views on events that are more difficult to avoid.

PS: I characterize bombing of civilians as an act of terrorism. Whether the bombing is with a suicide-vest or jet aircraft, the intent is to kill, maim, in short, to terrorize those in the area.

Is Your IP Address Leaking? – Word for the Day: Trust – Synonym for pwned.

Wednesday, July 20th, 2016

How to See If Your VPN Is Leaking Your IP Address (and How to Stop It) by Alan Henry.

From the post:

To see if your VPN is affected:

  • Visit a site like What Is My IP Address and jot down your actual ISP-provided IP address.
  • Log in to your VPN, choose an exit server in another country (or use whichever exit server you prefer) and verify you’re connected.
  • Go back to What Is My IP Address and check your IP address again. You should see a new address, one that corresponds with your VPN and the country you selected.
  • Visit Roseler’s WebRTC test page and note the IP address displayed on the page.
  • If both tools show your VPN’s IP address, then you’re in the clear. However, if What Is My IP Address shows your VPN and the WebRTC test shows your normal IP address, then your browser is leaking your ISP-provided address to the world.

    Attempting to conceal your IP address and at the same time leaking it (one assumes unknowingly), can lead to a false sense of security.

    Follow the steps Alan outlines to test your setup.

    BTW, Alan’s post includes suggestions for how to fix the leak.

    If you blindly trust concealment measures and software, you may as well activate links in emails from your local bank.

    Word for the Day: Trust – Synonym for pwned.

    Verify your concealment on a regular basis.

    Proofing Images Tool – GAIA

    Tuesday, July 19th, 2016

    As I was writing on Alex Duner’s JuxtaposeJS, which creates a slider over two images of the same scene (think before/after), I thought of another tool for comparing photos, a blink comparator.

    Blink comparators were invented to make searching photographs of sky images, taken on different nights, for novas, variable stars or planets/asteroids, more efficient. The comparator would show first one image and then the other, rapidly, and any change in the image would stand out to the user. Asteroids would appear to “jump” from one location to another. Variable stars would shrink and swell. Novas would blink in and out.

    Originally complex mechanical devices using glass plates, blink comparators are now found in astronomical image processing software, such as:
    GAIA – Graphical Astronomy and Image Analysis Tool.

    From the webpage:

    GAIA is an highly interactive image display tool but with the additional capability of being extendable to integrate other programs and to manipulate and display data-cubes. At present image analysis extensions are provided that cover the astronomically interesting areas of aperture & optimal photometry, automatic source detection, surface photometry, contouring, arbitrary region analysis, celestial coordinate readout, calibration and modification, grid overlays, blink comparison, image defect patching, polarization vector plotting and the ability to connect to resources available in Virtual Observatory catalogues and image archives, as well as the older Skycat formats.

    GAIA also features tools for interactively displaying image planes from data-cubes and plotting spectra extracted from the third dimension. It can also display 3D visualisations of data-cubes using iso-surfaces and volume rendering.

    It’s capabilities include:

    • Image Display Capabilities
      • Display of images in FITS and Starlink NDF formats.
      • Panning, zooming, data range and colour table changes.
      • Continuous display of the cursor position and image data value.
      • Display of many images.
      • Annotation, using text and line graphics (boxes, circles, polygons, lines with arrowheads, ellipses…).
      • Printing.
      • Real time pixel value table.
      • Display of image planes from data cubes.
      • Display of point and region spectra extracted from cubes.
      • Display of images and catalogues from SAMP-aware applications.
      • Selection of 2D or 3D regions using an integer mask.
    • Image Analysis Capabilities
      • Aperture photometry.
      • Optimal photometry.
      • Automated object detection.
      • Extended surface photometry.
      • Image patching.
      • Arbitrary shaped region analysis.
      • Contouring.
      • Polarization vector plotting and manipulation.
      • Blink comparison of displayed images.
      • Interactive position marking.
      • Celestial co-ordinates readout.
      • Astrometric calibration.
      • Astrometric grid overlay.
      • Celestial co-ordinate system selection.
      • Sky co-ordinate offsets.
      • Real time profiling.
      • Object parameterization.
    • Catalogue Capabilities
      • VO capabilities
        • Cone search queries
        • Simple image access queries
      • Skycat capabilities
        • Plot positions in your field from a range of on-line catalogues (various, including HST guide stars).
        • Query databases about objects in field (NED and SIMBAD).
        • Display images of any region of sky (Digital Sky Survey).
        • Query archives of any observations available for a region of sky (HST, NTT and CFHT).
        • Display positions from local catalogues (allows selection and fine control over appearance of positions).
    • 3D Cube Handling
      • Display of image slices from NDF and FITS cubes.
      • Continuous extraction and display of spectra.
      • Collapsing, animation, detrending, filtering.
      • 3D visualisation with iso-surfaces and volume rendering.
      • Celestial, spectral and time coordinate handling.
    • CUPID catalogues and masks
      • Display catalogues in 2 or 3D
      • Display selected regions of masks in 2 or 3D

    (highlighting added)

    With a blink comparator, when offered an image you can quickly “proof” it against an earlier image of the same scene, looking for any enhancements or changes.

    Moreover, if you have drone-based photo-reconnaissance images, a tool like GAIA will give you the capability to quickly compare them to other images.

    I am hopeful you will also use this as an opportunity to explore the processing of astronomical images, which is an innocent enough explanation for powerful image processing software on your computer.


    Tuesday, July 19th, 2016

    JuxtaposeJS Frame comparisons. Easy to make. Seamless to publish. (Northwestern University Knight Lab, Alex Duner.)

    From the webpage:

    JuxtaposeJS helps storytellers compare two pieces of similar media, including photos, and GIFs. It’s ideal for highlighting then/now stories that explain slow changes over time (growth of a city skyline, regrowth of a forest, etc.) or before/after stories that show the impact of single dramatic events (natural disasters, protests, wars, etc.).

    It is free, easy to use, and works on all devices. All you need to get started are links to the images you’d like to compare.

    Perhaps an unexpected use, but if you are stumped on a “find all the differences” pair of photos, split them and create a slider!

    This isn’t a hard one but for example use these two images:

    As the slider moves over a change between the two images, your eye will be drawn towards the motion. (Visit Cranium Crunches Blog for more puzzles and images like this one.)

    On a more serious note, imagine the use of this app for comparison of aerial imagery (satellite, plane, drone) and using the human eye to spot changes in images. Could be more timely than streaming video for automated analysis.

    Or put differently, it isn’t the person with the most intell, eventually, that wins, but the person with the best intell, in time.

    Colorblind-Friendly Graphics

    Tuesday, July 19th, 2016

    Three tools to help you make colorblind-friendly graphics by Alex Duner.

    From the post:

    I am one of the 8% of men of Northern European descent who suffers from red-green colorblindness. Specifically, I have a mild case of protanopia (also called protanomaly), which means that my eyes lack a sufficient number of retinal cones to accurately see red wavelengths. To me some purples appear closer to blue; some oranges and light greens appear closer to yellow; dark greens and brown are sometimes indistinguishable.

    Most of the time this has little impact on my day-to-day life, but as a news consumer and designer I often find myself struggling to read certain visualizations because my eyes just can’t distinguish the color scheme. (If you’re not colorblind and are interested in experiencing it, check out Dan Kaminsky’s iPhone app DanKam which uses augmented reality to let you experience the world through different color visions.)

    As information architects, data visualizers and web designers, we need to make our work accessible to as many people as possible, which includes people with colorblindness.

    Alex is writing from a journalism perspective but accessibility is a concern for any information delivery system.

    A pair of rather remarkable tools, Vischeck, simulates colorblindness on your images and Daltonize, “corrects” images for colorblind users will be useful in vetting your graphics. Both are available at: Plugins for Photoshop (Win/Mac/ImageJ).

    Loren Petrich has a collection of resources, including filters for GIMP to simulate colorblindness at: Color-Blindness Simulators.

    1960’s Flashback: Important Tor Nodes Shutting Down

    Tuesday, July 19th, 2016

    Swati Khandelwal reports the departure of Lucky Green from the Tor project will result in the loss of several critical Tor nodes and require an update to Tor code. (Core Tor Contributor Leaves Project; Shutting Down Important Tor Nodes)

    Here’s the Tonga (Bridge Authority) Permanent Shutdown Notice in full:

    Dear friends,

    Given recent events, it is no longer appropriate for me to materially contribute to the Tor Project either financially, as I have so generously throughout the years, nor by providing computing resources. This decision does not come lightly; I probably ran one of the first five nodes in the system and my involvement with Tor predates it being called “Tor” by many years.

    Nonetheless, I feel that I have no reasonable choice left within the bounds of ethics, but to announce the discontinuation of all Tor-related services hosted on every system under my control.

    Most notably, this includes the Tor node “Tonga”, the “Bridge Authority”, which I recognize is rather pivotal to the network

    Tonga will be permanently shut down and all associated crytographic keys destroyed on 2016-08-31. This should give the Tor developers ample time to stand up a substitute. I will terminate the chron job we set up so many years ago at that time that copies over the descriptors.

    In addition to Tonga, I will shut down a number of fast Tor relays, but the directory authorities should detect that shutdown quickly and no separate notice is needed here.

    I wish the Tor Project nothing but the best moving forward through those difficult times,


    As I mentioned in Going Dark With Whisper? Allies versus Soul-Mates it is having requirements other than success of a project that is so damaging to such efforts.

    I could discover that IS is using the CIA to funnel money from the sales of drugs and conflict diamonds to fund the Tor project and it would not make any difference to me. Even if core members of the Tor project knew that and took steps to conceal it.

    Whether intended or not, the only people who will benefit from Lucky’s decision will be opponents of personal privacy and the only losers will be people who need personal privacy.

    Congratulations Lucky! You are duplicating a pattern of behavior that destroyed the Black Panthers, the SDS and a host of other groups and movements before and since then.

    Let’s hope others don’t imitate Lucky’s “I’ll take my ball and go home” behavior.

    HyperTerm (Not Windows HyperTerm)

    Monday, July 18th, 2016


    Tersely by Nat Torkington as:

    — an open source in-browser terminal emulator.

    That’s fair, but the project goals read:

    The goal of the project is to create a beautiful and extensible experience for command-line interface users, built on open web standards.

    In the beginning, our focus will be primarily around speed, stability and the development of the correct API for extension authors.

    In the future, we anticipate the community will come up with innovative additions to enhance what could be the simplest, most powerful and well-tested interface for productivity.

    JS/HTML/CSS Terminal. Visit HyperTerm for a rocking demo!

    Scroll down after the demo to see more.

    Looking forward to a Linux package being released!

    ApacheCon – Seville, Spain – Week of November 14th, 2016

    Monday, July 18th, 2016

    You have relied on Apache software, read its documentation, contributed (flamed?) on its lists. Attend ApacheCon and meet other members of the Apache community, in full bandwidth, real time.

    The call for papers (CFP) for this event is now open, and will remain open until September 9th.

    The event is divided into two parts, each with its own CFP. The first part of the event, called Apache Big Data, focuses on Big Data projects and related technologies.



    The second part, called ApacheCon Europe, focuses on the Apache Software Foundation as a whole, covering all projects, community issues, governance, and so on.



    ApacheCon is the official conference of the Apache Software Foundation, and is the best place to meet members of your project and other ASF projects, and strengthen your project’s community.

    If your organization is interested in sponsoring ApacheCon, contact Rich Bowen at ApacheCon is a great place to find the brightest developers in the world, and experts on a huge range of technologies.

    I lifted this text from an email by


    Going Dark With Whisper? Allies versus Soul-Mates

    Monday, July 18th, 2016

    After posting Safe Sex and Safe Chat, I asked a close friend if they used Signal from Open Whisper Systems, thinsing it would be good to practice before security is an absolute requirement.

    In response I was sent a link to: Internet privacy, funded by spooks: A brief history of the BBG by Yasha Levine.

    I take that to mean they aren’t using Whisper. 😉

    Levine’s factual points about U.S. government funding of Tor, Whisper, etc., accord with my general impression of that history, but I do disagree with his concluding paragraph:

    You’d think that anti-surveillance activists like Chris Soghoian, Jacob Appelbaum, Cory Doctorow and Jillian York would be staunchly against outfits like BBG and Radio Free Asia, and the role they have played — and continue to play — in working with defense and corporate interests to project and impose U.S. power abroad. Instead, these radical activists have knowingly joined the club, and in doing so, have become willing pitchmen for a wing of the very same U.S. National Security State they so adamantly oppose.

    So long as privacy projects release open source code, I don’t see any source of funding as problematic. Drug cartels would have to launder their money first but even rumored drug money spends just like other. Terrorists should step up just to bother and confound the FBI, which sees informational darkness around every corner.

    So long as the funding is toward the same goal, security in communication and all the work product is open source, then I see no natural limits on who can be allies of these projects.

    I say allies because I mean just that, allies. Who may have their own reasons, some fair and some foul, for their participation and funding. So long as we are advancing towards a common goal, that in other arenas we have conflicts, is irrelevant.

    One of the primary reasons why so many groups in the 1960’s failed is because everyone had to agree to be soul-mates on every issue. If you want a potpourri of splinter groups who spend more time fighting among themselves than with others, take that tack.

    If, on the other hand, you want funded, effective research that may make a real difference to you and your allies, be more focused on the task at hand and less on the intrinsic goodness (or lack thereof) of your allies.

    RNC 2016 – Cleveland, OH (aka, “The Mistake on The Lake”)

    Sunday, July 17th, 2016

    The Mistake on The Lake” as a nickname for Cleveland, Ohio was new to me. I remember news of the Burning River rather clearly. Polluting a river until it can burn takes effort. An impressive amount of effort.

    “The Mistake on The Lake” is also a fitting nickname for the RNC convention this week in Cleveland. Some mapping resources to help as stories develop:

    RNC Homepage with schedule: Despite reports to the contrary, I don’t see Lucifer on the speaking schedule. Perhaps a late addition?

    Google Maps, centered on the Quicken Loans Arena: easily switching between views, although the images are static. I assume you will update those with drone/helicopter imagery. Either your own or pirated off of others.

    MapQuest: To give you a non-Google alternative.

    Cuyahoga County Geographical Information Systems: Yeah, I could not have called the name of the county for Cleveland either. Lots of downloadable GIS data, including ownership, Lidar, contours (think noxious substances running away from you), etc. Plus they host interactive software if you don’t have your own GIS software.

    Don’t forget geo-located tweets as an information source for real time updates on locations and events.


    Safe Sex and Safe Chat

    Saturday, July 16th, 2016

    Matthew Haeck repeats the old dodge for bothering with encrypted communications:

    If I’m doing nothing wrong, it doesn’t matter

    in Secure Messaging Apps for Encrypted Chat.

    Most of us, outside of subscribers to the Linux Journal, never imagine that we are under surveillance by government agencies. And we may not be.

    But, that doesn’t mean our friends and acquaintances aren’t under surveillance by domestic and foreign governments, corporations and others.

    You should think of encrypted communications, chat in this case, just like you do safe sex.

    It not only protects yourself, but your present partner and all future partners the both of you may have.

    The same is true for use of encrypted chat. The immediate benefit is for your and your partner, but secure chat, denies the government and others, the use of your chats against unknown future chat partners.

    If you practice safe sex, practice safe chat.

    Secure Messaging Apps for Encrypted Chat is a great start towards practicing safe chat.

    BaseX 8.5.1 Released! (XQuery Texts for Smart Phone?)

    Saturday, July 16th, 2016

    BaseX – 8.5.1 Released!

    From the documentation page:

    BaseX is both a light-weight, high-performance and scalable XML Database and an XQuery 3.1 Processor with full support for the W3C Update and Full Text extensions. It focuses on storing, querying, and visualizing large XML and JSON documents and collections. A visual frontend allows users to interactively explore data and evaluate XQuery expressions in realtime. BaseX is platform-independent and distributed under the free BSD License (find more in Wikipedia).

    Besides Priscilia Walmsley’s XQuery 2nd Edition and the BaseX documentation as a PDF file, what other XQuery resources would you store on a smart phone? (For occasional reference, leisure reading, etc.)

    Google = No Due Process

    Friday, July 15th, 2016

    Not new but noteworthy headline about Google: Google deletes artist’s blog and a decade of his work along with it by Ethan Chiel.

    From the post:

    Artist Dennis Cooper has a big problem on his hands: Most of his artwork from the past 14 years just disappeared.

    It’s gone because it was kept entirely on his blog, which the experimental author and artist has maintained on the Google-owned platform Blogger since 2002 (Google bought the service in 2003). At the end of June, Cooper says he discovered he could no longer access his Blogger account and that his blog had been taken offline.

    As you know without even reading Ethan’s post, Google has been not responsive to Dennis Cooper or others inquiring on his behalf.

    Cooper failed to keep personal backups of his work, but when your files are stored with Google, what’s the point? Doesn’t Google keep backups? Of course they do, but that doesn’t help Cooper in this case.

    The important lesson here is that as a private corporation, Google isn’t obligated to give any user notice or an opportunity to be heard before their content is blocked. Or in short, no due process.

    Instead of pestering Google with new antitrust charges, the EU could require that Google maintain backups of any content it blocks and require it to deliver that content to the person posting it upon request.

    Such a law should include all content hosting services and consequently, be a benefit to everyone living in the EU.

    Unlike the headline grabbing antitrust charges against Google.

    FBI, Malware, Carte Blanche and Cardinal Richelieu

    Friday, July 15th, 2016

    Graham Cluley has an amusing take on the FBI’s reaction to its Playpen NIT being characterized as “malware” in When is malware not malware? When the FBI says so, of course.

    As Graham points out, the FBI has been denied the fruits of its operation of a child porn site (alleged identities of consumers of child porn), but there is a deeper issue here beyond than defining malware.

    The deeper issue lies in a portion of the FBI brief that Graham quotes in part:

    “Malicious” in criminal proceedings and in the legal world has very direct implications, and a reasonable person or society would not interpret the actions taken by a law enforcement officer pursuant to a court order to be malicious.

    The FBI brief echoes Cardinal Richelieu in The Three Musketeers:

    CARDINAL RICHELIEU. … Document three, the most important of all: A pardon — in case you get caught. It’s call a Carte Blanche. It has the force of law and is unbreakable, even by Royal fiat.

    MILADY. (Reading it.) “It is by my order and for the benefit of the State that the bearer of this note has one what he has done.”

    The FBI contends a court order, assuming it bothers to obtain one, operates as Carte Blanche and imposes no limits on FBI conduct.

    Moreover, once a court order is obtained, reports by the FBI of guilt are sufficient for conviction. How the FBI obtained alleged evidence isn’t open to inspection.

    Judges should disabuse the FBI of its delusions concerning the nature of court orders and remind it of its proper role in the criminal justice system. The courts, so far as I am aware, remain the arbiters of guilt and innocence, not the FBI.

    Neil deGrasse Tyson and the Religion of Science

    Thursday, July 14th, 2016

    The next time you see Neil deGrasse Tyson chanting “holy, holy, holy” at the altar of science, re-read The 7 biggest problems facing science, according to 270 scientists by Julia Belluz, Brad Plumer, and Brian Resnick.

    From the post:

    The scientific process, in its ideal form, is elegant: Ask a question, set up an objective test, and get an answer. Repeat. Science is rarely practiced to that ideal. But Copernicus believed in that ideal. So did the rocket scientists behind the moon landing.

    But nowadays, our respondents told us, the process is riddled with conflict. Scientists say they’re forced to prioritize self-preservation over pursuing the best questions and uncovering meaningful truths.

    Ah, a quick correction to: “So did the rocket scientists behind the moon landing.”


    The post Did Politics Fuel the Space Race? points to a White House transcript that reveals politics drove the race to the moon:

    James Webb – NASA Administrator, President Kennedy.

    James Webb: All right, then let me say this: if I go out and say that this is the number-one priority and that everything else must give way to it, I’m going to lose an important element of support for your program and for your administration.

    President Kennedy [interrupting]: By who? Who? What people? Who?

    James Webb: By a large number of people.

    President Kennedy: Who? Who?

    James Webb: Well, particularly the brainy people in industry and in the universities who are looking at a solid base.

    President Kennedy: But they’re not going to pay the kind of money to get that position that we are [who we are] spending it. I say the only reason you can justify spending this tremendous…why spend five or six billion dollars a year when all these other programs are starving to death?

    James Webb: Because in Berlin you spent six billion a year adding to your military budget because the Russians acted the way they did. And I have some feeling that you might not have been as successful on Cuba if we hadn’t flown John Glenn and demonstrated we had a real overall technical capability here.

    President Kennedy: We agree. That’s why we wanna put this program…. That’s the dramatic evidence that we’re preeminent in space.

    The rocket to the moon wasn’t about science, it about “…dramatic evidence that we’re preeminent in space.

    If you need a not so recent example, consider the competition between Edison and Westinghouse in what Wikipedia titles: War of Currents.

    Science has always been a mixture of personal ambition, politics, funding, etc.

    That’s not to take anything away from science but a caution to remember it is and always has been a human enterprise.

    Tyson’s claims for science should be questioned and judged like all other claims.

    Building A National FOIA Rejection Database (MuckRock)

    Thursday, July 14th, 2016

    MuckRock is launching a national database of FOIA exemptions by Joseph Licterman.

    From the post:

    In the 2015 fiscal year, the U.S. federal government processed 769,903 Freedom of Information requests. The government fully fulfilled only 22.6 percent of those requests; 44.9 percent of federal FOIA requests were either partially or fully denied. Even though the government denied at least part of more than 345,000 requests, it only received 14,639 administrative appeals.

    In an attempt to make the FOIA appeals process easier and help reporters and others understand how and why their requests are being denied, MuckRock is on Thursday launching a project to catalog and explain the exceptions both the federal and state governments are using to deny requests.

    MuckRock is a nonprofit site that helps its users file FOIA requests, and cofounder Michael Morisy said that the site is planning to create a “Google for FOIA rejections” which will help users understand why their requests were denied and learn what they can do to appeal the case.

    If your FOIA request is rejected, who knows about it? You and maybe a few colleagues?

    If you contribute your rejected FOIA requests to this MuckRock project, your rejected requests will join thousands of others to create a database on which the government can be held accountable for its FOIA behavior.

    Don’t let your rejected FOIA request languish in filing cabinets and boxes, contribute them along with support to MuckRock!

    The government isn’t the only party that can take names and keep records.

    Securing Your Cellphone For A Protest

    Thursday, July 14th, 2016

    The instructions on preparing for a demonstration in Steal This Book read in part:

    Ideally you should visit the proposed site of the demonstration before it actually takes place. This way you’ll have an idea of the terrain and the type of containment the police will be using. Someone in your group should mimeograph a map of the immediate vicinity which each person should carry. Alternative actions and a rendezvous point should be worked out. Everyone should have two numbers written on their arm, a coordination center number and the number of a local lawyer or legal defense committee. You should not take your personal phone books to demonstrations. If you get busted, pigs can get mighty Nosy when it comes to phone books. Any sharp objects can be construed as weapons. Women should not wear earrings or other jewelry and should tie their hair up to tuck it under a helmet. Wear a belt that you can use as a tourniquet. False teeth and contact lenses should be left at home if possible. You can choke on false teeth if you receive a sharp blow while running. Contact lenses can complicate eye damage if gas or Mace is used.

    How would you update this paragraph for the age of smart phones?

    ACLU counsels protesters to secure their phones (read personal phone books) in The Two Most Important Things Protesters Can Do To Secure Their Phones.

    You can do better than that, as Hoffman advises, leave your personal phone books (read smart phones) at home!

    Your “whole life is on your phone.” Yes, I know. All the more reason to leave it out of the clutches of anyone interested in your “whole life.”

    Buy clean burner phones in bulk.

    Preset bookmarks for the protest area on Google maps, along with landmarks, rendezvous points, fall back positions, etc.

    For texting during protests, create burner identities drawn from a list of characters in police shows, out of a hat. No changing, no choices. The same person should never re-use a burner identity. Patterns matter. (See the ACLU post for suggestions on secure messaging apps.)

    Continue to write two phone numbers on your arm: coordination center and a local lawyer or legal defense committee.

    Two reasons for these numbers on your arm: First, you may not have your cell phone when allowed to make a call from jail. Second, you should never have the number of another activist on your person.

    Nothing takes the place of a site visit but technology has changed since Hoffman’s time.

    High quality maps, photos, topographical (think elevation (high ground), drainage (as in running away from you)) features, not to mention reports of prior protests and police responses are available.

    If my security suggestions sound extreme, recall that not all protests occur in the United States and even of those that do, not all are the “line up to be arrested” sort of events. Or are conducted in “free speech allotments,” like the upcoming Democratic and Republican political conventions this summer.

    How-To Safely Protest on the Downtown Connector – #BLM

    Wednesday, July 13th, 2016

    Atlanta doesn’t have a spotless record on civil rights but Mayor Kasim Reed agreeing to meet with #BLM leaders on July 18, 2016, is a welcome contrast to response in the police state of Baton Rouge, for example.

    During this “cooling off” period, I want to address Mayor Reed’s concern for the safety of #BLM protesters and motorists should #BLM protests move onto the Downtown Connector.

    Being able to protest on the Downtown Connector would be far more effective than blocking random Atlanta surface streets, by day or night. Mayor Reed’s question is how to do so safely?

    Here is Google Maps’ representation of a part of the Downtown Connector:


    That view isn’t helpful on the issue of safety but consider a smaller portion of the Downtown Connector as seen by Google Earth:


    The safety question has two parts: How to transport #BLM protesters to a protest site on the Downtown Connector? How to create a safe protest site on the Downtown Connector?

    A nearly constant element of the civil rights movement provides the answer: buses. From the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Freedom Riders, to the long experiment with busing to achieve desegregation in education.

    Looking at an enlargement of an image of the Downtown Connector, you will see that ten (10) buses would fill all the lanes, plus the emergency lane and the shoulder, preventing any traffic from going around the buses. That provides safety for protesters. Not to mention transporting all the protesters safely to the protest site.

    The Downtown Connector is often described as a “parking lot” so drivers are accustomed to traffic slowing to a full stop. If a group of buses formed a line across all lanes of the Downtown Connector and slowed to a stop, traffic would be safely stopped. That provides safety for drivers.

    The safety of both protesters and drivers depends upon coordination between cars and buses to fill all the lanes of the Downtown Connector and then slowing down in unison, plus buses occupying the emergency lane and shoulder. Anything less than full interdiction of the highway would put both protesters and drivers at risk.

    Churches and church buses have often played pivotal roles in the civil rights movement so the means for creating safe protest spaces, even on the Downtown Connector, are not out of reach.

    There are other logistical and legal issues involved in such a protest but I have limited myself to offering a solution to Mayor Reed’s safety question.

    PS: The same observations apply to any limited access motorway, modulo adaptation to your local circumstances.

    New Linux Journal Subscription Benefit!

    Tuesday, July 12th, 2016

    Benefits of a Linux Journal subscription you already know:

    1. Linux Journal, currently celebrating its 20th year of publication, is the original magazine of the global Linux community, delivering readers the advice and inspiration they need to get the most out of their Linux systems.”
    2. $29.50 (US) buys 12 issues and access to the Linux Journal archive.
    3. Linux Journal has columns written by regular columns written by Mick Bauer, Reuven Lerner, Dave Taylor, Kyle Rankin, Bill Childers, John Knight, James Gray, Zack Brown, Shawn Powers and Doc Searls.
    4. For more see the Linux Journal FAQ.

    Now there is a new Linux Journal subscription benefit:

    You are flagged as an extremist by the NSA

    NSA Labels Linux Journal Readers and TOR and TAILS Users as Extremists by Dave Palmer.

    End the constant worry, nagging anxiety, endless arguments with friends about who is being tracked by the NSA! For the small sum of $29.50 (US) you can buy your way into the surveillance list at the NSA.

    I can’t think of a cheaper way to get on a watch list, unless you send threatening letters to the U.S. President, which is a crime, so don’t do it.

    Step up and assume the mantle of “extremist” in the eyes of the NSA.

    You would be hard pressed to find better company.

    PS: Being noticed may not seem like a good idea. But the bigger the NSA haystack, the safer all needles will be.

    FYI: Glossary Issues with the Chilcot Report

    Sunday, July 10th, 2016

    Anyone who is working on more accessible/useful versions of the Chilcot Report should be aware of the following issues with Annex 2 – Glossary.

    First, the “glossary” appears to be a mix of acronyms, with their expansions, along with random terms or phrases for which definitions are offered. For example, “FFCD – Full, Final and Complete declaration,” immediately followed by “Five Mile Market – Area in Basra.” (at page 247)

    Second, the concept of unique acronyms never occurred to the authors:

    AG Adjutant General
    AG Advocate General
    AG Attorney General
    (page 235)

    AM Aftermath
    AM Air Marshal
    (page 236)

    BCU Basic Capability Unit
    BCU Basra Crimes Unit
    (page 238)

    BOC Basra Operational Command
    BOC Basra Operations Centre
    (page 238)

    CG Commander General
    CG Consul General
    CG Consulate General (see BEO)
    (page 240)

    CIC Coalition Information Centre
    CIC Communication and Information Centre
    (page 240)

    CO Cabinet Office
    CO Commanding Officer
    (page 241)

    DCC Deputy Chief Constable
    DCC Dismounted Close Combat
    (page 243)

    DG Diego Garcia
    DG Director General
    (page 244)

    DIA Defence Intelligence Agency
    DIA Department of Internal Affairs
    (page 244)

    DPA Data Protection Act
    DPA Defence Procurement Agency
    (page 245)

    DSP Defence Strategic Plan
    DSP Deployable Spares Pack
    (page 245)

    EP Equipment Plan
    EP Equipment Programme
    (page 246)

    ESC Emergency Security Committee
    ESC Executive Steering Committee
    (page 246)

    EST Eastern Standard Time
    EST Essential Services Team
    (page 246)

    FP Force Posture
    FP Force Protection
    (page 247)

    IA Interim Administration
    IA Iraqi Army
    (page 250)

    ID Identification
    ID (US) Infantry Division
    (page 251)

    ING Iraqi National Gathering
    ING Iraqi National Guard
    (page 252)

    IO Information Operations
    IO International Organisations
    (page 252)

    ISG Information Strategy Group
    ISG Iraq Security Group
    ISG Iraq Strategy Group
    ISG Iraq Survey Group
    (page 253)

    MAS Manned Airborne Surveillance
    MAS Muqtada al-Sadr
    (page 256)

    Op Operation
    OP Operative Paragraph
    (page 260)

    OSD US Office of the Secretary of Defense
    OSD Out of Service Date
    (page 261)

    PM Prime Minister
    PM Protected Mobility
    (page 262)

    RA Research Analysts
    RA Regular Army
    (page 264)

    RDD Radiological Dispersal Devices
    RDD Required Delivery Date
    (page 264)

    SAF Small Arms Fire
    SAF Stabilisation Aid Fund
    (page 265)

    SC Security Committee
    SC Security Council
    (page 265)

    SE Scottish Executive
    SE South-East
    (page 266)

    SFA Service Family Accommodation
    SFA Strategic Framework Agreement
    (page 266)

    SG Secretary-General
    SG Special Groups
    (page 266)

    SLA Scottish Lord Advocate
    SLA Service Level Agreement
    (page 266)

    SSE Sensitive Site Exploitation
    SSE Spring Supplementary Estimate
    (page 267)

    UNSC UN Security Council
    UNSC UN Special Co-ordinator
    (page 270)

    Yes, seventy-four (74) items that may be mistaken in any automated processing of the text.

    Third, there are items in the glossary that don’t appear in the text outside of the glossary:

    H of C House of Commons page 249
    HoC House of Commons page 250

    The House of Commons is never referred to by “H of C” or “HoC” outside of the glossary.

    Fourth, there are items in the glossary that are not specialized vocabulary, as though the glossary is also a mini-English dictionary:

    de facto In fact
    de jure According to law
    (page 244)

    Fifth, the acronyms as mis-leading. For example, if you search for “EPW – Enemy Prisoners of War” (is there another kind?), outside of the glossary there is only one (1) “hit:”

    the-report-of-the-iraq-inquiry_section-061.pdf.txt:Communication] and handling of EPW [Enemy Prisoners of War]”.

    If you search for the other acronym, “PW – Prisoner of War,” outside of the glossary there is only one (1) “hit:”

    the-report-of-the-iraq-inquiry_section-064.pdf.txt:A mass PW [prisoner of war] problem and/or a humanitarian crisis could both

    With only casual knowledge of the war in Iraq, that doesn’t sound right does it?

    Try searching for “prison.” That will return 185 “hits.”

    Interesting isn’t it? The official acronyms (plural) return one “hit” each and a term not in the glossary returns 185 “hits.”

    Makes me wonder about the criteria for inclusion in the glossary.


    If you are working with the Chilcot report I hope you find these comments useful. I working on an XML format version of the glossary that treats this as acronym -> expansion, suitable for putting the expansion markup inline.

    The report randomly, from a reader’s perspective, uses acronyms and expansions. Consistently recording the acronyms and expansions will benefit readers and researchers. Two audiences ignored in the Chilcot Report.

    “Going Dark, Going Forward:…” Everyone Is Now Dumber For Having Read It.

    Saturday, July 9th, 2016

    Homeland Security’s big encryption report wasn’t fact-checked by Violet Blue.

    From the post:

    This past week, everyone’s been so focused on Hillary, Trump, police shootings and Dallas that few noticed that the Majority Staff of the House Homeland Security Committee finally released its encryption report — with some pretty big falsehoods in it. “Going Dark, Going Forward: A Primer on the Encryption Debate” is a guide for Congress and stakeholders that makes me wonder if we have a full-blown American hiring crisis for fact-checkers.

    The report relied on more than “100 meetings with … experts from the technology industry, federal, state, and local law enforcement, privacy and civil liberties, computer science and cryptology, economics, law and academia, and the Intelligence Community.” And just a little bit of creative license.

    The first line of the report is based on flat-out incorrect information.

    Do us all a favor, read Violet Blue’s summary of the report and not the report itself.

    Reading “Going Dark, Going Forward: A Primer on the Encryption Debate” will leave you mis-informed, annoyed/amazed at congressional committee ignorance, despairing over the future of civilization, and dumber.

    I differ from Violet because I think the report is intended to mis-inform, mis-lead and set false terms into play for a debate over encryption.

    That is not an issue of fact-checking but of malice.

    Consider the “big lie” that Violet quotes from the report (its opening line):

    “Public engagement on encryption issues surged following the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris and San Bernardino, particularly when it became clear that the attackers used encrypted communications to evade detection — a phenomenon known as ‘going dark.'”

    Every time that claim is made and repeated in popular media, a disclaimer should immediately appear:

    The claim that encrypted communications were used to evade detection in the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris and San Bernardino is a lie. A lie told with the intend to deceive and manipulate everyone who hears it.

    I know, it’s too long to be an effective disclaimer. Do you think “Lying bastards!” in closed captioning would be clear enough?

    Counter false narratives like Going Dark, Going Forward: A Primer on the Encryption Debate.

    Otherwise, the encryption “debate” will be held on false terms.

    Weka MOOCs – Self-Paced Courses

    Friday, July 8th, 2016

    All three Weka MOOCs available as self-paced courses

    From the post:

    All three MOOCs (“Data Mining with Weka”, “More Data Mining with Weka” and “Advanced Data Mining with Weka”) are now available on a self-paced basis. All the material, activities and assessments are available from now until 24th September 2016 at:

    The Weka software and MOOCs are great introductions to machine learning!

    Donald Knuth: Literate Programming on Channel 9

    Thursday, July 7th, 2016

    Donald Knuth: Literate Programming on Channel 9.


    The speaker will discuss what he considers to be the most important outcome of his work developing TeX in the 1980s, namely the accidental discovery of a new approach to programming — which caused a radical change in his own coding style. Ever since then, he has aimed to write programs for human beings (not computers) to read. The result is that the programs have fewer mistakes, they are easier to modify and maintain, and they can indeed be understood by human beings. This facilitates reproducible research, among other things.

    Presentation at the R User Conference 2016.

    Increase your book budget before watching this video!

    Faking Government Transparency: The Chilcot Report

    Thursday, July 7th, 2016

    The Chilcot Report (Iraq Inquiry) is an example of faking governmental transparency.

    You may protest: “But look at all the files, testimony, documents, etc. How can it be more transparent than that?”

    That’s not a hard question to answer.

    Preventing Shared Public Discussion

    The release of the Chilcot Report as PDF files, eliminates any possibility of shared public discussion of its contents.

    The report will be discussed by members of the media, experts and the public. Public comments are going to be scattered over blogs, newspapers, Twitter, Facebook and other media. And over a long period of time as well.

    For example, the testimony of Mr. Jonathan Powell is likely to draw comments:

    “… it was a mistake to go so far with de‑Ba’athification. It is a similar mistake the Americans made after the Second World War with de‑Nazification and they had to reverse it. Once it became clear to us, we argued with the administration to reverse it, and they did reverse it, although with difficulty because the Shia politicians in the government were very reluctant to allow it to be reversed, and at the time we were being criticised for not doing enough de‑Ba’athification.”75

    75 Public hearing, 18 January 2010, page 128.

    Had the report been properly published as HTML, that quote could appear as:

    <blockquote id=”iraq-inquiry_volume-10-section-111-para78-powell>
    “… it was a mistake to go so far with de‑Ba’athification. It is a similar mistake the Americans made after the Second World War with de‑Nazification and they had to reverse it. Once it became clear to us, we argued with the administration to reverse it, and they did reverse it, although with difficulty because the Shia politicians in the government were very reluctant to allow it to be reversed, and at the time we were being criticised for not doing enough de‑Ba’athification.”75

    The primary difference is that with an official identifier for the Powell quote, then everyone discussing it can point to the same quote.

    Which enables a member of the public, researcher, reporter or even a member of government, to search for: iraq-inquiry_volume-10-section-111-para78-powell and find every discussion that is indexed on the Internet, that points to that quote.

    Granting that it depends on authors using that identifier but it enables public discussion and research in ways that PDF simply blocks.

    Every paragraph, every quote, every list item, every map, should have a unique ID to facilitate pointing to portions of the original report.

    A Lack of Hyperlinks

    One of the more striking deficits of the Chilcot Report is its lack of hyperlinks. Footnote 75, which you saw above,

    75 Public hearing, 18 January 2010, page 128.

    is not a hyperlink to that public hearing.

    Why should the public be tasked with rummaging through multiple documents when publishing all of the texts as HTML would enable point to point navigation to relevant material?

    If you are thinking the lack of HTML/hyperlinks impairs the public’s use of this report is a rationale for PDF, you are right in one.

    Or consider the lack of hyperlinks to other published materials:

    Introduction to the Iraq Inquiry

    • The House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee published The Decision to go to War in Iraq on 3 July 2003.
    • The Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament published Iraqi Weapons of Mass Destruction – Intelligence and Assessments on 10 September 2003.
    • Lord Hutton published his Report of the Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Dr David Kelly CMG on 28 January 2004.
    • A Committee of Privy Counsellors, chaired by Lord Butler of Brockwell, published its Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction on 14 July 2004. Sir John Chilcot was a member of Lord Butler’s Committee.
    • The Baha Mousa Inquiry, chaired by Sir William Gage, was established in May 2008 and published its conclusions on 8 September 2011.2

    pages 2 and 3, numbered paragraph 4.

    Nary a hyperlink in the lot.

    But let’s just take the first one as an example:

    The House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee published The Decision to go to War in Iraq on 3 July 2003.

    Where would you go to find that report?

    Searching on the title finds volume 1 of that report relatively easily: House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee The Decision to go to War in Iraq Ninth Report of Session 2002–03 Volume I.

    Seeing “volume 1,” makes me suspect there is also a volume 2. Casting about a bit more we find:, of which I took the following screenshot:


    (select for a larger image)

    In the larger version you will see there are three volumes to The Decision to go to War in Iraq, not one. Where the other two volumes are now, your guess is probably better than mine. I tried a number of queries but did not get useful results.

    Multiple those efforts by everyone in the UK who has an interest in this report and you will see the lack of hyperlinks for what it truly is, a deliberate ploy to impede the public’s use of this report.

    Degree of Difficulty?

    Lest anyone protest that production of HTML with hyperlinks represents an extreme burden on the Iraq Inquiry’s staff, recall the excellent use Parliament makes of the web. (I know a number of markup experts in the UK that I can recommend should the holders of the original text wish to issue a text that would be useful to the public.)

    No, the publication of the Iraq Inquiry as non-hyperlinked PDF was a deliberate choice. One designed to impede its use for reasons best known to those making that decision. Unsavory reasons I have no doubt.

    PS: In the future, do not accept reports with footnotes/endnotes represented in layout. As logical elements, footnotes/endnotes are much easier to manage.