Binary Jumbled String Matching: Faster Indexing in Less Space by Golnaz Badkobeh, Gabriele Fici, Steve Kroon, and Zsuzsanna Lipták.
We introduce a new algorithm for the binary jumbled string matching problem, where the aim is to decide whether a given binary string of length n has a substring whose multiplicity equals a query vector (x, y). For example, for the string abaaababab, the query (3, 1) would return “yes”, and the query (5, 1) “no”. Previous solutions answered queries in constant time by creating an index of size O(n) in a pre-processing step. The fastest known approach to constructing this index is O(n^2/logn) [Burcsi et al., FUN 2010; Moosa and Rahman, IPL 2010] resp. O(n^2/log2 n) in the word-RAM model [Moosa and Rahman, JDA, 2012]. We propose an algorithm which creates an index for an input string s by using the string’s run-length encoding. This index can be queried in logarithmic time. Our index has worst-case size n, but extensive experimentation has consistently yielded a size which is between 0.8 and 3 times the length of the run-length encoding of s. The algorithm runs in time O(r^2 log r), where r is the number of a-runs of s, i.e., half the length of the run-length encoding of the string. This is no worse than previous solutions if r = O(n/logn) and better if r = o(n/logn)-which is the case for binary strings in many domains. Our experimentation further shows that in the vast majority of cases, the construction algorithm does not exceed the space needed for the index, and when it does, it does so only by a tiny constant.
Queries of binary strings in logarithmic time anyone?
I cite this in part because some topic mappers may be indexing binary strings but also as encouragement to consider the properties of your data carefully.
You may discover it has properties that lend themselves to very efficient processing.